Why does bacterial Biofilm increase the resistance to antibiotics

Microbiology Discussion 2

Microbiologists believe that Bacterial Biofilms are responsible for several chronic diseases that are difficult to treat and they are resistance to antibiotic.

Research about Bioflim and describe the characteristics of Bioflim in your own words. Identify the website that you do research on.

After considering all of your research, explain the impact of Bioflim in healthcare environments.

Why does bacterial Biofilm increase the resistance to antibiotics?

Reply back to classmates: Response has to be a paragraph.

1. Biofilm are microorganism that form from community characterized cells that are attached to an non-living chemical or living surface and embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced.Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that remain adherent to solid surfaces in an aqueous environment. These microbes produce a network of extracellular carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids known as extracellular polymeric matrix which acts as a protective shield for the biofilm-associated bacteria. A biofilm community creates an environment suitable for the exchange of genetic material between microbes within the biofilm architectural structure and conjugation (plasmid transfer) occurs at higher rates within biofilms than in free-floating (planktonic) species. The increased level of conjugation occurring in biofilms may be the result of protection of the microbes from shear forces brought on by fluid flow in the extracellular environment. Close cell-to-cell contact created by biofilms can enhance conjugation to efficiently spread bacterial resistance to antimicrobials via plasmid exchange.

Bacteria that attach to a surface and grow as a biofilm are protected from antibiotic killing. Reduced antibiotic susceptibility contributes to the persistence of biofilm infections such as those associated with implanted devices. The protective mechanisms at work in biofilms appear to be distinct from those that are responsible for conventional antibiotic resistance. In biofilms, poor antibiotic penetration, nutrient limitation, slow growth, adaptive stress responses, and formation of persister cells are hypothesized to constitute a multi-layered defense. The genetic and biochemical details of these biofilm defenses are only now beginning to emerge. Each gene and gene product contributing to this resistance may be a target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents. Disabling biofilm resistance may enhance the ability of existing antibiotics to clear infections involving biofilms that are refractory to current treatments.

2.A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other on a surface. These cells are frequently embedded within an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Biofilm extracellular polymeric substance, which is also referred to as slime is a polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. Biofilm forms when bacteria adhere to surfaces in moist environments by excreting a slimy, glue-like substance. Sites for biofilm formation include all kinds of surfaces: natural materials above and below ground, metals, plastics, medical implant material even plant and body tissue. Wherever you find a combination of moisture, nutrients and a surface, you are likely to find biofilm. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectant chemicals as well as resisting phagocytosis and other components of the body’s defence system. Biofilms cost the U.S. literally billions of dollars every year in energy losses, equipment damage, product contamination and medical infections. But biofilms also offer huge potential for bioremediating hazardous waste sites, biofiltering municipal and industrial water and wastewater, and forming biobarriers to protect soil and groundwater from contamination. The complexity of biofilm activity and behavior requires research contributions from many disciplines such as biochemistry, engineering, mathematics and microbiology.