List important discoveries in microbiology and their importance

Unit outcomes addressed in this Assignment:
· List important discoveries in microbiology and their importance
· Discuss the classification schema
· Select appropriate microscopic method to study different types of microorganisms
· In an essay, describe the various mechanisms utilized within the field of microscopy for studying microbes.
· Be sure to include the appropriate staining techniques.
· Your essay should be a minimum of 500 words
· Be sure that your grammar, sentence structure, and word usage is appropriate.
·        APA FORMAT
·        Identifies light and electron as two main branches of Microscopes
·        Identifies functional differences between the two main branches of microscopes
·        Identifies the differences in staining techniques
·        Provides specific microbial staining examples
·        Identifies how microscopy is utilized in identifying unknown
microbial specimen.
3 Concepts and Tools for Studying Microorganisms
We think we have life down; we think we understand all the conditions of its existence; and then along comes an upstart bacterium, live or fossil- ized, to tweak our theories or teach us something new. —Jennifer Ackerman in Chance in the House of Fate (2001)
The oceans of the world are a teeming but invisible forest of micro- organisms and viruses. For example, one liter of seawater contains more than 25,000 different bacterial species.
A substantial portion of these marine microbes represent the phy- toplankton (phyto = “plant”; plankto = “wandering”), which are floating communities of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae. Besides forming the foundation for the marine food web, the phytoplankton account for 50% of the photosynthesis on earth and, in so doing, supply about half the oxygen gas we and other organisms breathe.
While sampling ocean water, scientists from MIT’s Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution discovered that many of their samples were full of a marine cyanobacterium, which they eventually named Prochlorococcus. Inhabiting tropical and subtropical oceans, a typical sample often contained more than 200,000 (2 × 105) cells in one drop of seawater.
Studies with Prochlorococcus suggest the organism is responsible for almost 50% of the photosynthesis in the open oceans ( FIGURE 3.1 ). This makes Prochlorococcus the smallest and most abundant marine photosyn- thetic organism yet discovered.
Chapter Preview and Key Concepts
3.1 The Bacteria/Eukaryote Paradigm 1. Bacterial cells undergo biological processes
as complex as in eukaryotes. 2. There are organizational patterns common to
all living organisms. 3. Bacteria and eukaryotes have distinct
subcellular compartments. 3.2 Classifying Microorganisms
4. Organisms historically were grouped by shared characteristics.
5. The three-domain system shows the taxonomic relationships between living organisms. MICROINQUIRY 3: The Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells
6. The binomial system identifies each organism by a universally accepted scientific name.
7. Species can be organized into higher, more inclusive groups.
8. Identification and classification of microorganisms may use different methods.
3.3 Microscopy 9. Metric system units are the standard for
measurement. 10. Light microscopy uses visible light to
magnify and resolve specimens. 11. Specimens stained with a dye are contrasted
against the microscope field. 12. Different optical configurations provide
detailed views of cells. 13. Electron microscopy uses a beam of electrons
to magnify and resolve specimens.