History and Process of Nursing Research, Evidence Based Nursing Practice, Quantitative and Qualitative Research Process

Question description

Read the lecture and respond to the 2 discussions with APA format and Reference

Lecture

History and Process of Nursing Research, Evidence Based Nursing Practice, Quantitative and Qualitative Research Process

Introduction

Nursing research is a purposeful, structured, and disciplined process of discovery. It contributes to scholarly pursuits, which fill a void in the current literature of nursing and health care. As practicing nurses, it is critical to understand how to read research articles and consider the results in order to improve patient care. From the beginning, the importance of gathering data and presenting it to the health care community has been evident.

Historical Overview

Beginning with early leaders such as Florence Nightingale, important research has shaped the nursing profession. For example, Florence Nightingale was the first woman to be recognized by the Royal College of Statisticians for her contribution of visual display known today as the pie chart. Review Table 1-2 in Burns and Grove (2011), which provides an historical review of influences on research in nursing.

One notable year is 1986, when Congress created the National Center for Nursing Research (NCNR). Dr. Ada Sue Hindshaw was the first director of the NCNR, and, in less than 10 years, nursing had its own National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR). This recognition has moved nursing into the same level of importance as all other National Institutes of Health areas. Because NINR is subject to federal funding, it is incumbent upon all nurses to support tax dollars being allocated for this important work.

Purpose of Nursing Research

What makes nursing research different from research in other disciplines? This question has been debated in many nursing circles. The answer is that nursing research must be consistent with the philosophy and theories of nursing. Nursing theories are specific formulations that make up the realm of unique nursing knowledge. Furthermore, nursing research is a reliable, orderly, and ethical inquiry used to guide and direct nursing care, client outcomes, and health care systems. Therefore, nursing research not only generates new knowledge, but it validates and refines existing knowledge.

Early research started with true experimental design, which is best understood as research that is able to control, manipulate, and have true randomization. This specific method of research (quantitative research) focuses on the ability to control extraneous variables. Quantitative research is mentioned here to explain the difference between true experimental design and the unique nature of nursing research, which better fits into the realm of social science research.

In the beginning, research was agricultural−e.g., fertilizers could be tested by planting seeds in the same soil being exposed to the same elements of sun, rain, and wind. A section of the field would be given the experimental fertilizer, then compared against the other parts of the fields that did not get the experimental intervention. Human beings are much more difficult to study because there are numerous variables that make people unique. No two patients are alike, and experience indicates that no two patients with pain will respond the same way. The impact of culture, physiology, emotional stability, and cognitive function all affect the outcome. This fact is what makes nursing research interesting, demanding, and complex.

Components and Language of Nursing Research

The following table will provide you with an overview of the components of published research reports. All research reports have four major sections, as seen in Table 1.1: problem statement, methods, results, and conclusion or discussion.

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