Explain and describe one physical and one chemical mutagen and its application

Biotechnology is the use of microbes to make practical products.  The top three justifications for manipulating the genomes of cells are:
1. to eliminate undesirable phenotypic traits in humans, animals, plants and microbes.
2. to combine the beneficial traits of two or more organisms to create a new more valuable organism.
3. to create cells that synthesize products humans need.
Recombinant DNA technology employs a number to tools and techniques to isolate genes and insert them into cells grown in culture. The following are five tools of recombinant DNA technology and examples of application of the tools.
Mutagens are physical and chemical agents that produce mutation.  Some mutations are beneficial, so creating a large number of mutations increases the probability of discovering a beneficial mutation. For example the fungus Penicillium may be mutated to syntheisize a more effective antibiotic. Mutagens include uv radiation and ionizing radiation. Mueller first demonstrated the effects of X rays on Drosophilia, establishing cause and effect between radiation and genetic changes manifested in phenotypic changes.  Chemical mutagens in bacteria may be carcinogenic in humans.  The Ames test utilizes bacteria to test for mutagenic activity, and identify chemicals that may induce cell changes that lead to cancer. Ethidium bromide which may be used to visualize DNA on gel, is also a mutagen because it disrupts base pairing.
1. Explain and describe one physical and one chemical mutagen and its application.

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