Describe how the clonal expansion theory explains the more rapid production of antigen

Your answer for each question should be a minimum of 150 words (half page). Please number your answers and print the number of the question you are answering above your answers.
Identify subsections accordingly and cite sources in APA format.
1) Blood isolated from an emergency room patient contains antibodies against the measles virus. Please explain whether or not the patient should be quarantined immediately because they are infected with the measles virus and why? What are the other plausible explanations for anti-measles antibodies in the patient’s blood?
2) Describe how the clonal expansion theory explains the more rapid production of antigen
specific antibodies, Helper T-cells and Cytotoxic T-cells, during a secondary infection.
3) Positive diagnosis of AIDS is made when a patient has antibodies against the human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Please explain why the patient has an immune deficiency
if he or she is making antibodies?
4) Characterize the differences and similarities between innate and adaptive immunity in
form and function.
5) What is the effect of discharging primary treated sewage on the biochemical oxygen demand
(BOD) and dissolved O2 (DO) of the receiving body of water? What is the effect of secondary-
treated sewage on the BOD and DO?
6) A newspaper headline reported “Algal Bloom Kills Fish.” As you read, you find that the algae did not produce toxins. Please explain what actually caused fish death, given that the algae are
not toxic? What could have caused the algal bloom?
7) What is fermentation and how can it be used to preserve foods? Please give specific
examples in your explanation.

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