Briefly outline the steps involved in a bacteriophage plaque assay

You are in charge of developing a new antimicrobial chemical substance that will be used to make food grade cutting boards. Devise and experiment using hollow capillary tubes and a nutrient broth solution to determine whether or not your new chemical will act as an attractant or a repellent to Escherichia coli bacteria. Explain the results you would expect to obtain if your new chemical was in fact an antimicrobial repellent.
11. Briefly outline the steps involved in a bacteriophage plaque assay. A clear plaque would indicate which replication pathway? Explain. A cloudy plaque would indicate which replication pathway? Explain.
12. Which Baltimore group are the retroviruses in? Which Baltimore group are the positive-stranded mRNA bacteriophages in? What does it mean to be a positive strand of mRNA? Contrast the enzyme present in the virions of a retrovirus and the positive-stranded mRNA bacteriophages. Why do they differ if each has a plus configuration single-stranded RNA as their genome?
13. Which version of iron would predominate in early Earth condition? Explain why. Which version of iron predominates today? Explain why. Outline the process by which modern bacteria obtain iron and how they convert it into a form that they can metabolize.
14. The antibiotic penicillin interferes with transpeptidation of the peptidoglycan cell wall. In simple terms explain what this means. Give three reasons why this leads to lysis of the cell. During which phase of the bacterial growth curve would penicillin be most effective? Explain why.

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